Essay About Gujarat State Driving Licence

This article is about the city in India. For its namesake district, see Rajkot district.

Rajkot
Metropolis

Rani Lakshmibai Circle and Under Bridge

Rajkot

Coordinates: 22°18′00″N70°47′00″E / 22.3000°N 70.7833°E / 22.3000; 70.7833Coordinates: 22°18′00″N70°47′00″E / 22.3000°N 70.7833°E / 22.3000; 70.7833
CountryIndia
StateGujarat
RegionSaurashtra
DistrictRajkot
Zone3 (Central, East and West)[1]
Ward23[1][2]
Rajkot Municipal Corporation1973
Government
 • Body(RMC)
 • MayorJaimin Upadhyay
Area[3]
 • Metropolis170.00 km2 (65.64 sq mi)
Elevation128 m (420 ft)
Population [4]
 • Metropolis1,442,975
 • Rank29th
 • Density8,500/km2 (22,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[5]1,390,640
 • Metro rank35th
Demonym(s)Rajkotian
Languages
 • OfficialGujarati, Hindi, English
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
PIN360 0XX
Telephone code0281
Vehicle registrationGJ-03
Literacy87.80 (2016)%[6]
Planning agency(RUDA)
ClimateSemi-Arid(Köppen)
Precipitation590 millimetres (23 in)
Avg. annual temperature26 °C (79 °F)
Websitewww.rmc.gov.in

Rajkot (Rājkot pronunciation (help·info)) is the fourth-largest[7][8] city in the state of Gujarat, India, after Ahmedabad, Surat and Vadodara. Rajkot is the centre of the Saurashtra region of Gujarat. Rajkot is the 35th-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population more than 1.2 million as of 2015.[9] Rajkot is the eighteenth-cleanest[10][11] city of India, and is the 22nd-fastest-growing city in the world.[12] The city contains the administrative headquarters of the Rajkot District, 245 km from the state capital Gandhinagar, and is located on the banks of the Aji and Nyari rivers. Rajkot was the capital of the Saurashtra State from 15 April 1948 to 31 October 1956, before its merger with Bombay State on 1 November 1956. Rajkot was reincorporated into Gujarat State from 1 May 1960.

History[edit]

Further information: History of Rajkot

See also: Rajkot State

Rajkot has been under different rulers since it was founded. It has had a long history and had a significant influence in the Indian independence movement. Rajkot was home to many personalities like Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Rajkot is in a transition period of growing cultural, industrial and economical activities. Rajkot is the 26th largest city of India and the 22nd fastest growing urban area of the world.[12]

Rajkot was the capital of the then Saurashtra state from 15 April 1948 to 31 October 1956 before merging in bilingual Bombay State on 1 November 1956. Rajkot was merged into Gujarat State from bilingual Bombay state on 1 May 1960. Thakur Saheb Pradyumansinhji died in 1973. His son, Manoharsinhji Pradyumansinhji, who has carved out a political career at the provincial level, succeeded him. He served as a Member of the Gujarat Legislative Assembly for several years and as the state Minister for Health and Finance. Monoharsinhji's son, Mandattasinh Jadeja has embarked on a business career.[citation needed]

On 26 January 2001 the 7.7 MwGujarat earthquake shook Western India with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme), leaving 13,805–20,023 dead and about 166,800 injured.

Geography[edit]

Rajkot is located at 22°18′N70°47′E / 22.3°N 70.78°E / 22.3; 70.78.[13] It has an average elevation of 128 metres (420 ft). The city is located on the bank of Aji River and Nyari River which remains dry except the monsoon months of July to September. The city is spread in the area of 170.00 km².[14]

Rajkot is situated in the region called Saurashtra in the Gujarat state of India. The significance of Rajkot's location is owing to the fact that it is one of the prime industrial centres of Gujarat. Rajkot has a central location in the area called the Kathiawar peninsula. The city is located within the Rajkot district in Gujarat. Rajkot city is the administrative headquarters of the district of Rajkot. The district is surrounded by Botad in the east, and Surendranagar in the north, Junagadh and Amreli in the south, Morbi in the northwest and Jamnagar in the west and Porbandar in the southwest.

Climate[edit]

Rajkot has a semi-arid climate, with hot, dry summers from mid-March to mid-June and the wet monsoon season from mid-June to October, when the city receives 590 mm of rain on average. The months from November to February are mild, the average temperature being around 20 °C, with low humidity.

One of the most important weather phenomena that is associated with the city of Rajkot is the cyclone. The cyclones generally occur in the Arabian Sea during the months after the rainy season. The region experiences a lot of rainfall and high-speed winds during the time of the year[citation needed] after the monsoon season as well as the months of May and June. However, June experiences lesser amount of rainfall and winds than the post-monsoon time. Thunderstorms are another important part of the Rajkot weather in the months of June and July. During summer time, the temperature ranges between 24 °C and 42 °C. In the months of winter, Rajkot temperature varies between 10 °C and 22 °C but on a whole winters are pleasant.[15]

Climate data for Rajkot Airport (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)36.4
(97.5)
40.0
(104)
43.9
(111)
44.4
(111.9)
47.9
(118.2)
45.8
(114.4)
40.6
(105.1)
38.8
(101.8)
42.8
(109)
41.9
(107.4)
38.4
(101.1)
36.4
(97.5)
47.9
(118.2)
Average high °C (°F)28.4
(83.1)
30.9
(87.6)
35.5
(95.9)
39.1
(102.4)
40.5
(104.9)
37.8
(100)
33.0
(91.4)
31.6
(88.9)
33.6
(92.5)
35.9
(96.6)
33.2
(91.8)
29.9
(85.8)
34.1
(93.4)
Average low °C (°F)12.8
(55)
15.0
(59)
19.2
(66.6)
22.6
(72.7)
25.4
(77.7)
26.5
(79.7)
25.4
(77.7)
24.4
(75.9)
23.8
(74.8)
22.4
(72.3)
18.4
(65.1)
14.4
(57.9)
20.9
(69.6)
Record low °C (°F)−0.6
(30.9)
1.1
(34)
6.1
(43)
10.0
(50)
16.1
(61)
20.0
(68)
19.4
(66.9)
20.1
(68.2)
16.7
(62.1)
12.2
(54)
7.2
(45)
2.8
(37)
−0.6
(30.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)0.8
(0.031)
0.3
(0.012)
0.1
(0.004)
1.4
(0.055)
5.4
(0.213)
108.4
(4.268)
253.4
(9.976)
165.3
(6.508)
115.1
(4.531)
19.3
(0.76)
6.3
(0.248)
0.3
(0.012)
676.1
(26.618)
Average rainy days0.10.10.00.20.14.49.68.05.01.30.30.129.1
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[16][17]

Demographics[edit]

As of the 2011 India census, Rajkot recorded a total population of 1,390,640. Rajkot city has an average literacy rate of 82.20%, higher than the national average.[5] The population is 52.43% male and 47.47% female. Most of the population is Hindu with a Muslim minority.

Population Growth of Rajkot 
CensusPop.
189129,200

194166,400

1951132,10098.9%
1961193,50046.5%
1971302,00056.1%
1981444,20047.1%
1991654,50047.3%
20011,003,01553.2%
20111,390,64038.6%
source:[18]
YearPopulation
1891
1941
1951
1961
1968
1971
1981
1991
2001
2011
2013

Source:[19]

Source:[20]

Culture[edit]

The people in Rajkot are predominantly vegetarians and are vehemently against any form of hunting.[citation needed] The women of Rajkot are fond of jewellery. Large chains, pendants and other heavy gold jewellery are a common sight during marriages, festivals and functions. The attire changes with the season and festivals. The ladies normally wear the Gujarati type of the Sari and men can be seen in flowing Kurtas and formal wear (shirts and trousers).

Rajkot is multicultural. One can find many languages, like Gujarati, Hindi, Urdu, English, Sindhi, Bengali, Tamil, Malayalam and Marathi. However, only Gujarati, Hindi, Urdu, and English are well understood. Rajkot is the part of Kathiyawad. Because of this people of Rajkot are also known as Kathiyawadi.

Rajkot is frequently referred to as Rangilu Rajkot (રંગીલુ રાજકોટ), meaning "colourful Rajkot".Rajkot is also called as "Chitranagri" (City of Paintings).

Landmarks[edit]

Rajkot has many historical landmarks and places. The Jubilee Garden is a large, open park in the centre of the city featuring many monuments from colonial times. Located prominently in the centre of the garden is the Connaught Hall. Other notable points of interest near the garden include the historic Mohandas Gandhi High School, Kaba Gandhi No Delo (Mohandas Gandhi's childhood residence), Rashtriya Shala, Watson Museum, Rotary Dolls Museum, Lang Library, Rotary Midtown Library and Saurashtra Cricket Association Stadium.

The Rotary Dolls Museum has a collection of more than 1,400 dolls from all over the world.[21]

The Lang Library and the G.T. Sheth Library collect thousands of documents and books covering every period in Rajkot and Saurashtra (region) history. Rajkot has many other public libraries with many branches throughout the city. It includes Rotary Midtown of Rajkot City Library and many more.

Other points of interest in Rajkot include Swaminarayan Gurukul, Masonic Hall, Race Course, Aji Dam, Swaminarayan Temple, Vishwakarma Prabhuji Temple.

The Watson Museum, located in the Jubilee Garden, has a collection of human history and culture. It presents objects of the colonial period of India and the history of Rajkot. The Rajkot Memon Boarding is headquarters of Muslim activities before 1947. Saurashtra Muslim league held many Muslim convention at Rajkot Memon boarding ground.

The Gaibanshah Peer Dargah is the center of conviction of people whether they are Muslims or Hindus. At Gaibanshah Peer Dargah there is a religious program called Urss every year. In this program almost every religions head come and took part in this gathering every year and preach about peace and humanity.

The Trimandir, a non-sectarian temple founded by Dada Bhagwan, is located at a short distance from the city.[22]

Awards[edit]

Best LAW and Order city – 2013[23]

Performing arts[edit]

Rajkot is a major regional centre for the arts, with many venues for the performing arts in the city. Hemu Gadhvi Natyagraha,[24] one of the first non-profit regional theatres, is rich with history and dedicated to the Gujarati Play.

Music[edit]

Rajkot has its own native music genre, called dayro,[25] which is used to convey folk stories and sayings. Rajkot also inherited Kathiyawadi folk music.The city also has various orchestra groups, which perform professionally. They mainly perform the music albums from Bollywood.

Sports[edit]

Cricket is the most famous sport in the city. One-day internationals, domestic tournaments such as the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy and many inter-school and collegiate tournaments are played at the Madhavrao Sindhia Cricket Ground. The newly constructed 2nd International Cricket Stadium situated in Rajkot, Saurashtra Cricket Association Stadium, formerly known as Khandheri Cricket Stadium, is a cricket stadium in Khandheri, about 15 kilometres outside Rajkot, India. The Stadium has a capacity of 28,000 to 32,000 spectators. In this cricket stadium Day/Night matches can now also be played. The stadium hosted its 1st International Cricket Match played on 11 January 2013 between India and England. The stadium will part of a larger sports complex that will include venues for other sports such as badminton, basketball, and volleyball. It will host Saurashtra Cricket Association matches along with Madhavrao Sindhia Cricket Ground. Rajkot has produced cricketers such as Karsan Ghavri and Cheteshwar Pujara who have been members of the Indian cricket team. Rajkot has many other cricket grounds around city, including Railway Cricket Ground and Rajkumar College South Ground. Apart from cricket, other sports such as hockey, association football, volleyball, badminton, tennis, table-tennis, chess, swimming and squash are rapidly growing popular in the city.[citation needed] There has been a significant increase in recent years in the number of private sports clubs, gymkhanas and gymnasiums. Kathiawar gymkhana, indoor stadium and swimming pools of Rajkot Municipal Corporation are major sports clubs in city. Recently, the Gujarat Hockey Team (Under 14) was assembled with all 16 players coming from Rajkot.A new modernised cricket ground is even under construction at the outskirts. There are numerous swimming pools too. Rajkot Municipal Corporation also owns a 9-hole golf course at Ishwaria. It is maintained by Green Meadows Golf Club.[26]

In 2016 and 2017, a franchise from Rajkot will play in Indian Premier League. The franchise is owned by Intex Technologies.

Cycling is a fast growing sport in Rajkot. Members of "Rajkot Cycle Club" regularly ride BRMs which are timed events which stretch from 200 km to 1200 km.

Festivals[edit]

Garba is popular among both, men and women and is performed during the festival of Navratri. The dance starts before midnight and continues until dawn. Mata Ambe, who rides a lion, has a special reverential status with any highly religious Gujarati. The 'Janmastami Mela' is organised for five days at the Race Course grounds to celebrate Janmastami. Diwali is one of the most important festival and is usually a week long holiday. Rajkot Municipal Corporation arranges the annual Fireworks Show for the citizens of Rajkot during the Diwali festival. The festival of Eid is also celebrated by the Muslim population. Holi is also celebrated with frolic and is widely enjoyed by most of the city folk. People also celebrate Uttarayan (Makar Sankranti) on 14 January by flying kites from their terraces.

Economy[edit]

The city contributes to the economy of the state with heavy and small scale industries under the patronage of Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC) and Gujarat State Financial Corporation (GSFC). The economy of Rajkot was supported with a 280 million World Bank aid for development of infrastructure of the city.[citation needed] The plans are already in place to beautify and modernise the ancient city, including a Rock Garden, ala Chandigarh. Another 250 million project to rebuild the Kaiser-e-Hind, the only major bridge linking to the city, is already nearing completion.[citation needed]

Real estate[edit]

Real estate has been a key contributor to Rajkot's development in terms of economic and infrastructure development. Since early 2014, several skyscrapers have been built in Rajkot.

Industry[edit]

Products made in Rajkot include jewellery, silk embroidery and watch parts. Industrial products include bearings, diesel engines, kitchen knives and other cutting appliances, watch parts (cases and bracelets), automotive parts, forging industry, casting industry, machine tools, share market and software development.[citation needed] The city is also home to several CNC machine and auto parts manufacturers.

There are about 500 foundry units in Rajkot. The cluster came up mainly to cater to the casting requirements of the local diesel engine industry. The geographical spread of the cluster includes Aji Vasahat, Gondal Road, Bhavanagar Road areas, Shapar, Veraval and Metoda. The majority of foundry units in Rajkot produce grey iron castings for the domestic market. About 2% of the foundry units export castings such as electric motor castings and automobile castings.

In the near future, the government of Gujarat will allocate large land areas for the development of Special Economic Zone[27] which will be split into three areas and will include industries such as software and automobiles. As per recent market reviews, Rajkot is becoming Asia's biggest automobile zone.

Rajkot was formerly the leading centre in India in the field of diesel engine and submersible pumps. Submersible pumps are still manufactured in the city and marketed throughout India, with some of the larger manufacturers also exporting them.

Law and government[edit]

Rajkot is governed by many government bodies, including Jilla Seva Sadan (Rajkot District Collector Offices), Rajkot Municipal Corporation, Rajkot Urban Development Authority.

Preceded by
Rakshaben Boliya
City Mayor
Dec 2015 – present
Succeeded by
Jaimanbhai Upadhyay
Preceded by
Vijay Nehra
City Municipal Commissioner
Sep 2016 – present
Succeeded by
Banchhanidhi Pani
Preceded by
Mohan Jha
City Police Commissioner
February 2016 – present
Succeeded by
Anupam Singh Gehlot

The city civic body has started a 24x7 call centre, the first of its kind in Gujarat and the second in the country to take care of all complaints relating to civic management. Citizens can now get all their complaints registered with the Rajkot Municipal Corporation by dialling a single number with an assurance that the problem would be addressed within 72 hours.[28]

Transport[edit]

Rajkot is connected to major Indian cities by air, railway and road.

Roads and highways[edit]

The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) runs regular buses to and from Rajkot to other cities of Gujarat. More than 81000 people travel daily with GSRTC.[citation needed] Rajkot is very well connected with Gujarat State Highways and Rajkot is allocated the vehicle registration code GJ-3 by RTO. There are a number of private bus operators connecting city with other cities of Gujarat state and other states of India.

Rail and internal transport[edit]

Rajkot has two railway stations. Rajkot Junction Railway Station (station code: RJT) is the more widely used railway station for passenger trains, and has services to all the major cities of India. Its elevation is 128 m above sea level. The other, smaller, railway station is Bhaktinagar Railway Station (station code: BKNG), served only by trains from Somnath, Veraval, Junagadh and Porbandar.

Rajkot Municipal Corporation has restored city bus services with Public Private Partnership in 2007. RMC and a private company is providing around 80 CNG buses under 15 to 20 routes in city and suburbs.

Recently Rajkot BRTS was launched on 1 October 2012.[29] a new Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) with launching of the 10-km long Blue corridor and two AC buses which will be free for the first three months. The corridor is located in the west part of the city through the 150 ft ring road connecting Madhapar chokdi on the Jamangar road to Gondal chokdi on the Gondal road. The corridor will host 11 buses in further stage.

Rajkot BRTS Route

The fully completed project in future will have two more corridors – green and red from Arvind Maniyar Nagar to Saurashtra University and Greenland Chowk to Saurashtra University respectively involving 157 buses in three colours. Rajkot thus becomes the second city in Gujarat to have BRTS after Ahmedabad. The city of Surat too is planning an ambitious BRTS project, construction of which is going on presently.[30]

To make more ease in the public transport, a city bus service 'Rajkot Mass Transport Service (RMTS)' has also been added on 1/4/2015. Currently, it operates on 44 routes with 90 buses.

Rajkot has a large number of auto rickshaws, which operate around the clock within the city. Most of these are converted to CNG from petrol or diesel. Ola Cabs has started its operations here.

Aviation[edit]

Rajkot Airport[31] is located at a short distance from the city and can be accessed by cab and auto rickshaw services. There are multiple daily flights to Mumbai, served by Air India and Jet Airways. Air India started the Rajkot New Delhi flight from 15 February 2015.[32]

Media and communications[edit]

State-owned All India Radio has a local station and has FM channel 102.4 Vividh Bharati in Rajkot which transmits various programs of mass interest.

Private FM stations like Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM (only station that broadcasts for 24 hours), Red FM 93.5, Big 92.7 FM and 94.3 MY FM also serve the people of Rajkot with excellent entertainment and events.

Education[edit]

Rajkot is famous for providing education to Mahatma Gandhi (Gandhiji), at the Alfred High School. A number of schools in the city are run by Rajkot Municipal Corporation. They include 20 schools and learning centres,[33] which consist of 3 elementary schools, 7 middle schools, 4 junior high schools, 4 senior high schools, 1 education centre, and 1 special school.[34] There are also some self-financed public schools. TGES (The Galaxy Educational System) is a group of sister schools. The Galaxy School (TGS), a part of TGES, is the only international school in the city which offers the International Baccalaureate Program. Rajkot is home to Rajkumar College, Rajkot, also known as RKC, which is one of the oldest schools of India.Rkc use to be one of the Chief schools of India similar to Mayo College at Ajmer and Daly College at Indore where royals use to study.Rkc was specially established for the princes of Kathiawar.

Rajkot also has the Union Government HRD Ministry run Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, now shifted to Jamnagar highway premise. Earlier it started at the Juni Khadki school premise of Sir Lakhajiraj High School and later moved to its own building on the Jamnagar Road. It is a CBSE Board affiliated, residential school for girls and boys, providing education to those selected at the Class VI level all India entrance test.[35][36]

The city is home to Saurashtra University, several colleges, and other institutions of higher education, both public and private. Rajkot has two private universities, RK University (RKU)[37] and Marwadi University.[38] The city has 12 engineering colleges. It has a Performing Arts College (Vocal, Classical dance, Tabla Vadan etc.) opposite Hemu Gadhvi Natya Gruh. The Saurashtra University is the city's public university. It is spread across approximately 410 acres (1.7 km2) of green land with 28 post-graduation departments.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ab"Statistics". Rajkot Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2007. 
  2. ^"Ward details". Rajkot Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2007. 
  3. ^"Statistics". Rajkot Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 19 December 2007. 
  4. ^"Rajkot Municipal Corporation Demographics". Census of India. Retrieved 5 June 2016. 
  5. ^ abc"Rajkot City Census 2011 data". Census2011. Retrieved 5 June 2016. 
  6. ^Rajkot District Population Census 2011, Gujarat literacy sex ratio and density. Census2011.co.in. Retrieved on 28 July 2013.
  7. ^(Ahmedabad ranks 7th, Surat 9th, Vadodara 22nd and Rajkot 34th)
  8. ^http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/3455/8/08_chapter%204.pdf
  9. ^Census of India Retrieved 2015.
  10. ^Cleanest cities in India
  11. ^"10 clean cities that make India proud". Rediff. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  12. ^ ab"City Mayors World's fastest growing urban areas (1)", Retrieved on 31 December 2016
  13. ^Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Rajkot, Retrieved on 2007
  14. ^Rajkot Geography, Retrieved on 3 January 2008
  15. ^Weatherbase of Rajkot, Retrieved on 1 February 2008
  16. ^"Rajkot Climatological Table Period: 1981–2010". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved April 10, 2015. 
  17. ^"Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved April 10, 2015. 
  18. ^"Census of World". 
  19. ^"Historical Census of India".
Young Mohandas Gandhi (right) and his school friend Sheikh Mehtab (left) in Rajkot
An Aerial Image of the Aji River that flows through the city of Rajkot
Religions in Rajkot (2011)[5]
Hinduism89.90%
Islam7.68%
Jainism1.90%
Christianity0.27%
Others♦0.24%
Distribution of religions
Mohandas Gandhi High School
This is the house where Gandhiji's father, Karamchand Uttanchand Gandhi (Kaba Gandhi) resided at Rajkot, serving as Diwan (Prime Minister) to the King. Gandhiji himself spent a few years of his early life here from 1881 to 1887. This is a typical Saurashtra 'dela' type house with a central approach from an arched gateway. It was built on 1880–81 A.D. and today it depicts an interesting photo essay of his life.
Crystal Mall Kalawad Road
Road network near Rajkot Gujarat India 2015
Rajkot BRTS Bus and the Corridor
A Jet Airways aircraft and refuelling truck on the apron at Rajkot Airport

This article is about the city in Gujarat, India. For other uses, see Ahmedabad (disambiguation).

Ahmedabad
Amdavad
Karnavati
Metropolis

Clockwise from topː Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalay at Sabarmati Ashram, Ahmedabad Railway Station, CEPT University, Kankaria Lake and the Kirti Stambh at Hutheesing Temple

Ahmedabad

Show map of Gujarat

Ahmedabad

Show map of India
Coordinates: 23°02′N72°35′E / 23.03°N 72.58°E / 23.03; 72.58Coordinates: 23°02′N72°35′E / 23.03°N 72.58°E / 23.03; 72.58
Country India
StateGujarat
DistrictAhmedabad
Establishment
  • in 11th century as Ashaval
  • on 26 February 1411 as Ahmedabad
Government
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • BodyAMC
 • MayorGautam Shah (BJP)
 • Deputy MayorPramoda Sutariya
 • Municipal commissionerMukesh Kumar
Area[1]
 • Metropolis464.165 km2 (179.215 sq mi)
Area rank1st in Gujarat
Elevation[2]53 m (174 ft)
Population (2011)[3]
 • Metropolis5,633,927
 • Rank5th
 • Density12,000/km2 (31,000/sq mi)
 • Urban[4]6,357,693
Demonym(s)Ahmedabadi/Amdavadi
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
Pincode(s)380 0XX
Area code(s)079
Vehicle registrationGJ-1 (west), GJ-27 (East),[citation needed], GJ-38 Bavla (Rural)
Sex ratio1.11[5]♂/♀
Literacy rate89.62[3]
Source: Census of India.[6]

Ahmedabad ( ( listen)), also known as Amdavad and Karnavati is the largest city and former capital of Gujarat, which is a state in India. It is the administrative headquarters of the Ahmedabad district and the seat of the Gujarat High Court. Ahmedabad's population of 5,633,927 makes it the fifth most populous city in India,[3] and the encompassing urban agglomeration population estimated at 7,650,000 is the seventh most populous in India.[7][8] Ahmedabad is located on the banks of the Sabarmati River, 30 km (19 mi) from the state capital Gandhinagar, which is its twin city.[9]

Ahmedabad has emerged as an important economic and industrial hub in India. It is the second largest producer of cotton in India, and its stock exchange is the country's second oldest. Cricket is a popular sport in Ahmedabad, which houses the 54,000-seat Sardar Patel Stadium. The effects of liberalisation of the Indian economy have energised the city's economy towards tertiary sector activities such as commerce, communication and construction.[10] Ahmedabad's increasing population has resulted in an increase in the construction and housing industries resulting in recent development of skyscrapers.[11]

In 2010, Ahmedabad was ranked third in Forbes's list of fastest growing cities of the decade.[12] In 2012, The Times of India chose Ahmedabad as India's best city to live in.[13] As of 2014, Ahmedabad's estimated gross domestic product was $64 billion.[14]

Ahmedabad has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Government of India's flagship Smart Cities Mission.[15]

In July 2017, the Historic City of Ahmadabad or Old Ahmadabad, was declared as India's first UNESCO World Heritage City.[16]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Ahmedabad

The area around Ahmedabad has been inhabited since the 11th century, when it was known as Ashaval .[17] At that time, Karna, the Chaulukya ruler of Anhilwara (modern Patan), waged a successful war against the Bhil king of Ashaval,[18] and established a city called Karnavati on the banks of the Sabarmati.[19] Solanki rule lasted until the 13th century, when Gujarat came under the control of the Vaghela dynasty of Dholka. Gujarat subsequently came under the control of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century. However, by the earlier 15th century, the local governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar established his independence from the Delhi Sultanate and crowned himself Sultan of Gujarat as Muzaffar Shah I, thereby founding the Muzaffarid dynasty.[20] This area finally came under the control of his grandson Sultan Ahmed Shah in 1411 A.D. who while at the banks of Sabarmati liked the forested area for a new capital city and laid the foundation of a new walled city near Karnavati and named it Ahmedabad after the four saints in the area by the name Ahmed.[21] According to other sources, he named it after himself.[22][23] Ahmed Shah I laid the foundation of the city on 26 February 1411[24] (at 1.20 pm, Thursday, the second day of Dhu al-Qi'dah, Hijri year 813[25]) at Manek Burj. He chose it as the new capital on 4 March 1411.[26]

In 1487, Mahmud Begada, the grandson of Ahmed Shah, fortified the city with an outer wall 10 km (6.2 mi) in circumference and consisting of twelve gates, 189 bastions and over 6,000 battlements.[27] In 1535 Humayun briefly occupied Ahmedabad after capturing Champaner when the ruler of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah, fled to Diu.[28] Ahmedabad was then reoccupied by the Muzaffarid dynasty until 1573 when Gujarat was conquered by the Mughal emperor Akbar. During the Mughal reign, Ahmedabad became one of the Empire's thriving centres of trade, mainly in textiles, which were exported as far as Europe. The Mughal ruler Shahjahan spent the prime of his life in the city, sponsoring the construction of the Moti Shahi Mahal in Shahibaug. The Deccan Famine of 1630–32 affected the city, as did famines in 1650 and 1686.[29] Ahmedabad remained the provincial headquarters of the Mughals until 1758, when they surrendered the city to the Marathas.[30]

During the period of Maratha Empire governance, the city became the centre of a conflict between the Peshwa of Poona and the Gaekwad of Baroda.[31] In 1780, during the First Anglo-Maratha War, a British force under James Hartley stormed and captured Ahmedabad, but it was handed back to the Marathas at the end of the war. The British East India Company took over the city in 1818 during the Third Anglo-Maratha War.[21] A military cantonment was established in 1824 and a municipal government in 1858.[21] Incorporated into the Bombay Presidency during British rule, Ahmedabad became one of the most important cities in the Gujarat region. In 1864, a railway link between Ahmedabad and Mumbai (then Bombay) was established by the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway (BB&CI), enabling traffic and trade between northern and southern India via the city.[21] Over time, the city established itself as the home of a developing textile industry, which earned it the nickname "Manchester of the East".[32]

The Indian independence movement developed roots in the city when Mahatma Gandhi established two ashrams – the Kochrab Ashram near Paldi in 1915 and the Satyagraha Ashram (now Sabarmati Ashram) on the banks of the Sabarmati in 1917 – which would become centres of nationalist activities.[21][33] During the mass protests against the Rowlatt Act in 1919, textile workers burned down 51 government buildings across the city in protest at a British attempt to extend wartime regulations after the First World War. In the 1920s, textile workers and teachers went on strike, demanding civil rights and better pay and working conditions. In 1930, Gandhi initiated the Salt Satyagraha from Ahmedabad by embarking from his ashram on the Dandi Salt March. The city's administration and economic institutions were rendered inoperative in the early 1930s by the large numbers of people who took to the streets in peaceful protests, and again in 1942 during the Quit India Movement. Following independence and the partition of India in 1947, the city was scarred by the intense communal violence that broke out between Hindus and Muslims in 1947, Ahmedabad was the focus for settlement by Hindu migrants from Pakistan,[34] who expanded the city's population and transformed its demographics and economy.

By 1960, Ahmedabad had become a metropolis with a population of slightly under half a million people, with classical and colonial European-style buildings lining the city's thoroughfares.[35] It was chosen as the capital of Gujarat state after the partition of the State of Bombay on 1 May 1960.[36] During this period, a large number of educational and research institutions were founded in the city, making it a centre for higher education, science and technology.[37] Ahmedabad's economic base became more diverse with the establishment of heavy and chemical industry during the same period. Many countries sought to emulate India's economic planning strategy and one of them, South Korea, copied the city's second "Five-Year Plan".[citation needed]

In the late 1970s, the capital shifted to the newly built, well planned city of Gandhinagar. This marked the start of a long period of decline in the city, marked by a lack of development. The 1974 Nav Nirman agitation – a protest against a 20% hike in the hostel food fees at the L.D. College of Engineering in Ahmedabad – snowballed into a movement to remove Chimanbhai Patel, then chief minister of Gujarat.[38] In the 1980s, a reservation policy was introduced in the country, which led to anti-reservation protests in 1981 and 1985. The protests witnessed violent clashes between people belonging to various castes.[39] The city suffered some of the impact of the 2001 Gujarat earthquake; up to 50 multi-storey buildings collapsed, killing 752 people and causing much damage.[40] The following year, a three-day period of violence between Hindus and Muslims in the western Indian state of Gujarat, known as the 2002 Gujarat riots, spread to Ahmedabad; refugee camps were set up around the city.[41]

The 2008 Ahmedabad bombings, a series of seventeen bomb blasts, killed and injured several people.[42] Militant group Harkat-ul-Jihad claimed responsibility for the attacks.[43] ...

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

Population growth of Ahmedabad 
CensusPop.
1871116,900

1901185,900

1911216,80016.6%
1921270,00024.5%
1931313,80016.2%
1941595,20089.7%
1951788,30032.4%
19611,149,90045.9%
19711,950,00069.6%
19812,515,20029.0%
19913,312,20031.7%
20014,525,01336.6%
20115,633,92724.5%
sources:[3][44]

At the 2011 Census of India[update] Ahmedabad had a population of 5,633,927, making it the fifth most populous city in India.[3] The urban agglomeration centred upon Ahmedabad, then having a population of 6,357,693, now estimated at 7,650,000, is the seventh most populous urban agglomeration in India.[7][8] The city had a literacy rate of 89.62%; 93.96% of the men and 84.81% of the women were literate.[3] Ahmedabad's sex ratio in 2011 was 897 women per 1000 men.[3] According to the census for the Ninth Plan, there are 30,737 rural families living in Ahmedabad. Of those, 5.41% (1663 families) live below the poverty line.[45] Approximately 440,000 people live in slums within the city.[46] In 2008, there were 2273 registered non-resident Indians living in Ahmedabad.[47]

In 2010, Forbes magazine rated Ahmedabad as the fastest-growing city in India, and listed it as third fastest-growing in the world after the Chinese cities of Chengdu and Chongqing.[48] In 2011, it was rated India's best megacity to live in by leading market research firm IMRB.[49] According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) report of 2003, Ahmedabad has the lowest crime rate of the 35 Indian cities with a population of more than one million.[50] In December 2011 market research firm IMRB declared Ahmedabad the best megacity to live in, when compared to India's other megacities.[51] Slightly less than half of all real estate in Ahmedabad is owned by "community organisations" (i.e. cooperatives), and according to Prof. Vrajlal Sapovadia of the B.K. School of Business Management, "the spatial growth of the city is to [an] extent [a] contribution of these organisations".[52]Ahmedabad Cantonment provides residential zones for Indian Army officials.[53]

Religion and ethnicity[edit]

According to the 2011 census, Hindus are the predominant religious community in the city comprising 81.56% of the population followed by Muslims (13.51%), Jains (3.62%), Christians (0.85%) and Sikhs (0.24%).[54]Buddhists, people following other religions and those who didn't state any religion make up the remainder.

Geography[edit]

Main article: Geography of Ahmedabad

Ahmedabad lies at 23°02′N72°35′E / 23.03°N 72.58°E / 23.03; 72.58 in western India at 53 metres (174 ft) above sea level on the banks of the Sabarmati river, in north-central Gujarat. It covers an area of 464 km2 (179 sq mi).[1] The Sabarmati frequently dried up in the summer, leaving only a small stream of water, and the city is in a sandy and dry area. However with the execution of the Sabarmati River Front Project and Embankment, the waters from the Narmada river have been diverted to the Sabarmati to keep the river flowing throughout the year, thereby eliminating Ahmedabad's water problems. The steady expansion of the Rann of Kutch threatened to increase desertification around the city area and much of the state; however, the Narmada Canal network is expected to alleviate this problem. Except for the small hills of Thaltej-Jodhpur Tekra, the city is almost flat. Three lakes lie within the city's limits—Kankaria, Vastrapur and Chandola. Kankaria, in the neighbourhood of Maninagar, is an artificial lake developed by the Sultan of Gujarat, Kutb-ud-din, in 1451.[59]

According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the town falls under seismic zone 3, in a scale of 2 to 5 (in order of increasing vulnerability to earthquakes).[60]

Ahmedabad is divided by the Sabarmati into two physically distinct eastern and western regions. The eastern bank of the river houses the old city, which includes the central town of Bhadra. This part of Ahmedabad is characterised by packed bazaars, the pol system of closely clustered buildings, and numerous places of worship.[61] A Pol (pronounced as pole) is a housing cluster which comprises many families of a particular group, linked by caste, profession, or religion.[62][63]This is a list of Pols in the old walled city[62] of Ahmedabad in Gujarat, India. Heritage of these Pols [64] has helped Ahmedabad gain a place in UNESCO's Tentative Lists, in selection criteria II, III and IV.[65] The secretary-general of EuroIndia Centre quoted that if 12000 homes of Ahmedabad are restored they could be very helpful in promoting heritage tourism and its allied businesses.[66] The Art Reverie in Moto Sutharvado is Res Artis center. The first pol in Ahmedabad was named Mahurat Pol.[67] Old city also houses the main railway station, the main post office, and some buildings of the Muzaffarid and British eras. The colonial period saw the expansion of the city to the western side of Sabarmati, facilitated by the construction of Ellis Bridge in 1875 and later the relatively modern Nehru Bridge. The western part of the city houses educational institutions, modern buildings, residential areas, shopping malls, multiplexes and new business districts centred around roads such as Ashram Road, C. G. Road and Sarkhej-Gandhinagar Highway.[68]

Sabarmati Riverfront is a waterfront being developed along the banks of Sabarmati river in Ahmedabad, India. Proposed in 1960s, the construction began in 2005

Climate[edit]

Ahmedabad has a hot, semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSh), with marginally less rain than required for a tropical savanna climate. There are three main seasons: summer, monsoon and winter. Aside from the monsoon season, the climate is extremely dry. The weather is hot from March to June; the average summer maximum is 43 °C (109 °F), and the average minimum is 24 °C (75 °F). From November to February, the average maximum temperature is 30 °C (86 °F), the average minimum is 13 °C (55 °F), and the climate is extremely dry. Cold northerly winds are responsible for a mild chill in January. The southwest monsoon brings a humid climate from mid-June to mid-September. The average annual rainfall is about 800 millimetres (31 in), but infrequent heavy torrential rains cause local rivers to flood and it is not uncommon for droughts to occur when the monsoon does not extend as far west as usual. The highest temperature in the city was recorded on 18 and 19 May 2016 which was 50 °C (122 °F).[69]

Climate data for Ahmedabad (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)36.1
(97)
40.6
(105.1)
43.9
(111)
46.2
(115.2)
50.0
(122)
47.2
(117)
42.2
(108)
40.4
(104.7)
41.7
(107.1)
42.8
(109)
38.9
(102)
35.6
(96.1)
50.0
(122)
Average high °C (°F)28.1
(82.6)
30.8
(87.4)
35.8
(96.4)
39.6
(103.3)
41.6
(106.9)
38.8
(101.8)
33.6
(92.5)
32.0
(89.6)
33.8
(92.8)
35.7
(96.3)
32.9
(91.2)
29.5
(85.1)
34.4
(93.9)
Average low °C (°F)12.4
(54.3)
14.3
(57.7)
19.5
(67.1)
23.9
(75)
27.0
(80.6)
27.5
(81.5)
25.9
(78.6)
25.0
(77)
24.7
(76.5)
21.4
(70.5)
16.7
(62.1)
13.4
(56.1)
21.0
(69.8)
Record low °C (°F)3.3
(37.9)
2.2
(36)
9.4
(48.9)
12.8
(55)
19.1
(66.4)
19.4
(66.9)
20.4
(68.7)
21.2
(70.2)
17.2
(63)
12.6
(54.7)
8.3
(46.9)
3.6
(38.5)
2.2
(36)
Average rainfall mm (inches)1.0
(0.039)
0.8
(0.031)
0.6
(0.024)
2.4
(0.094)
7.0
(0.276)
80.0
(3.15)
291.2
(11.465)
266.2
(10.48)
86.8
(3.417)
11.7
(0.461)
2.3
(0.091)
1.0
(0.039)
750.9
(29.563)
Average rainy days0.10.10.00.40.63.911.510.75.00.80.40.233.6
Average relative humidity (%)49433741476277817153485055
Mean monthly sunshine hours287.3274.3277.5297.2329.6238.3130.1111.4220.6290.7274.1288.63,019.7
Source #1: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[70][71]
Source #2: NOAA (sun and humidity 1971–1990),[72] IEM ASOS (May record high) [73]

Following a heat wave in May 2010, reaching 46.8 °C (116.2 °F), which claimed hundreds of lives,[74] the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) in partnership with an international coalition of health and academic groups and with support from the Climate & Development Knowledge Network developed the Ahmedabad Heat Action Plan.[75] Aimed at increasing awareness, sharing information and co-ordinating responses to reduce the health effects of heat on vulnerable populations, the action plan is the first comprehensive plan in Asia to address the threat of adverse heat on health.[76] It also focuses on community participation, building public awareness of the risks of extreme heat, training medical and community workers to respond to and help prevent heat-related illnesses, and co-ordinating an interagency emergency response effort when heat waves hit.[77]

Cityscape[edit]

Early in Ahmedabad's history, under Ahmed Shah, builders fused Hindu craftsmanship with Persian architecture, giving rise to the Indo-Saracenic style.[78] Many mosques in the city were built in this fashion.[78]Sidi Saiyyed Mosque was built in the last year of the Sultanate of Gujarat. It is entirely arched and has ten stone latticework windows or jali on the side and rear arches. Private mansions or haveli from this era have carvings.[62] A Pol is a typical housing cluster of Old Ahmedabad.

After independence, modern buildings appeared in Ahmedabad. Architects given commissions in the city included Louis Kahn, who designed the IIM-A; Le Corbusier, who designed the Shodhan and Sarabhai Villas, the Sanskar Kendra and the Mill Owner's Association Building, and Frank Lloyd Wright, who designed the administrative building of Calico Mills and the Calico Dome.[79][80]B. V. Doshi came to the city from Paris to supervise Le Corbusier's works and later set up the School of Architecture. His local works include Sangath, Amdavad ni Gufa and the School of Architecture. Charles Correa, who became a partner of Doshi's, designed the Gandhi Ashram and Achyut Kanvinde, and the Indian Textile Industries Research Association.[81][82]Christopher Charles Benninger's first work, the Alliance Française, is located in the Ellis Bridge area.[83]Anant Raje designed major additions to Louis Kahn's IIM-A campus, namely the Ravi Mathai Auditorium and KLMD.[84]

Some of the most visited gardens in the city include Law Garden, Victoria Garden and Bal Vatika. Law Garden was named after the College of Law situated close to it. Victoria Garden is located at the southern edge of the Bhadra Fort and contains a statue of Queen Victoria. Bal Vatika is a children's park situated on the grounds of Kankaria Lake and also houses an amusement park. Other gardens in the city include Parimal Garden, Usmanpura Garden, Prahlad Nagar Garden and Lal Darwaja Garden.[85] Ahmedabad's Kamla Nehru Zoological Park houses a number of endangered species including flamingoes, caracals, Asiatic wolves and chinkara.[86]

The Kankaria Lake, built in 1451 AD, is one of the biggest lakes in Ahmedabad.[87] In earlier days, it was known by the name Qutub Hoj or Hauj-e-Kutub.[88]Vastrapur Lake is located in the western part of Ahmedabad. Lal Bahadur Shastri lake in Bapunagar is almost 136,000 square metres. In 2010, another 34 lakes were planned in and around Ahmedabad of which five lakes will be developed by AMC; the other 29 will be developed by the Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority (AUDA).[89]Chandola Lake covers an area of 1200 hectares. It is home for cormorants, painted storks and spoonbills.[90] During the evening time, many people visit this place and take a leisurely stroll.[91] There is a recently developed Naroda lake[92] and the world's largest collection of antique cars in KathWada at IB farm (Dastan Farm).[93] AMC has also developed the Sabarmati Riverfront.[94]

Civic administration[edit]

Ahmedabad is the administrative headquarters of Ahmedabad district, administered by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC). The AMC was established in July 1950 under the Bombay Provincial Corporation Act of 1949. The AMC commissioner is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by the state government who reserves the administrative executive powers, whereas the corporation is headed by the Mayor. The city residents elect the 192 municipal councillors by popular vote, and the elected councillors select the deputy mayor and mayor of the city. The administrative responsibilities of the AMC are: water and sewerage services, primary education, health services, fire services, public transport and the city's infrastructure.[1] AMC was ranked 9th out of 21 cities for "the Best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.4 out of 10 compared to the national average of 3.3."[95]

The city is divided into six zones constituting 64 wards. Ahmedabad district is divided into a number of talukas (administrative divisions) including Ahmedabad talukaBarwala, Dholka, Dhandhuka, Detroj, Sanand, Bavla, Ranpur, Mandal, Viramgam and Daskroi.[96] The city's urban and suburban areas are administered by the Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority (AUDA).

Public services[edit]

  • Health services are primarily provided at Ahmedabad civil hospital, the largest civil hospital in Asia.[99] Ahmedabad is one of the few cities in India where the power sector is privatised.[100]
  • Electricity in the city is generated and distributed by Torrent Power Limited, owned and operated by the Ahmedabad Electricity Company, which was previously a state-run corporation.[101]

Culture[edit]

Main article: Culture of Ahmedabad

Ahmedabad observes a wide range of festivals. Popular celebrations and observances include Uttarayan, an annual kite-flying day on 14 and 15 January. Nine nights of Navratri are celebrated with people performing Garba, the most popular folk dance of Gujarat, at venues across the city. The festival of lights, Deepavali, is celebrated with the lighting of lamps in every house, decorating the floors with rangoli, and the lighting of firecrackers. The annual Rath Yatra procession on the Ashadh-sud-bij date of the Hindu calendar at the Jagannath Temple and the procession of Tajia during the Muslim holy month of Muharram are important events.[102][103]

One of the most popular forms of meal in Ahmedabad is a typical Gujarati thali which was first served commercially by Chandvilas Hotel in 1900.[104] It consists of roti (Chapati), dal, rice and shaak (cooked vegetables, sometimes with curry), with accompaniments of pickles and roasted papads. Sweet dishes include laddoo, mango, and vedhmi. Dhoklas, theplas and dhebras are also very popular dishes in Ahmedabad.[105] Beverages include buttermilk and tea. Drinking alcohol is forbidden in Ahmedabad.[106]

There are many restaurants, which serve a wide array of Indian and international cuisines. Most of the food outlets serve only vegetarian food, as a strong tradition of vegetarianism is maintained by the city's Jain and Hindu communities.[107] The first all-vegetarian Pizza Hut in the world opened in Ahmedabad.[108] KFC has a separate staff uniform for serving vegetarian items and prepares vegetarian food in a separate kitchen,[109][110] as does McDonald's.[111][112] Ahmedabad has a quite a few restaurants serving typical Mughlai non-vegetarian food in older areas like Bhatiyar Gali, Kalupur and Jamalpur.[113]

Manek Chowk is an open square near the centre of the city that functions as a vegetable market in the morning and a jewellery market in the afternoon. However, it is better known for its food stalls in the evening, which sell local street food. It is named after the Hindu saint Baba Maneknath.[114] Parts of Ahmedabad are known for their folk art. The artisans of Rangeela pol make tie-dyedbandhinis, while the cobbler shops of Madhupura sell traditional mojdi (also known as mojri) footwear. Idols of Ganesha and other religious icons are made in huge numbers in the Gulbai Tekra area. The shops at the Law Garden sell mirror work handicraft.[85]

Three main literary institutions were established in Ahmedabad for the promotion of Gujarati literature: Gujarat Vidhya Sabha, Gujarati Sahitya Parishad and Gujarat Sahitya Sabha. Saptak School of Music festival is held in the first week of the new year. This event was inaugurated by Ravi Shankar.[115][116]

The Sanskar Kendra, one of the several buildings in Ahmedabad designed by Le Corbusier, is a city museum depicting its history, art, culture and architecture. The Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya and the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Memorial have permanent displays of photographs, documents and other articles relating to Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel. The Calico Museum of Textiles has a large collection of Indian and international fabrics, garments and textiles.

City Walls of Ahmedabad, 1866
Ahmedabad and its environs, ca 1914
19th century painted cloth map of Ahmedabad
There are nine bridges on the river Sabarmati that connect the eastern and western regions.
A side walk at the Sabarmati Riverfront

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