Wiki Case Study Houses California

Joseph L. Eichler

Joseph Eichler in 1958

Born(1900-06-25)June 25, 1900
New York City, New York
DiedJuly 1, 1974(1974-07-01) (aged 74)
San Mateo County, California
NationalityAmerican
CitizenshipUnited States
OccupationReal estate developer
Spouse(s)Lillian Moncharsh
Children2

Joseph Leopold Eichler (June 25, 1900 – July 1, 1974) was a 20th-century post-war American real estate developer known for developing distinctive residential subdivisions of Mid-Century modern style tract housing in California. He was one of the influential advocates of bringing modern architecture from custom residences and large corporate buildings to general public availability. His company and developments remain in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area and Greater Los Angeles.[1]

Eichler Homes[edit]

Between 1949 and 1966, Joseph Eichler's company, Eichler Homes, built over 11,000[2] homes in nine communities in Northern California and homes in three communities in Southern California. Later, other firms worked with Eichler's company to build similar houses. Together, they all came to be known as Eichlers. During this period, Eichler became one of the nation's most influential builders of modern homes. The largest contiguous Eichler Homes development is "The Highlands" in San Mateo, built between 1956 and 1964.[citation needed]

Joseph Eichler is considered by some to be a social visionary and commissioned designs primarily for middle-class Americans. One of his stated aims was to construct inclusive and diverse planned communities, ideally featuring integrated parks and community centers. Eichler established a non-discrimination policy and offered homes for sale to anyone of any religion or race. In 1958, he resigned from the National Association of Home Builders when they refused to support a non-discrimination policy.[3]

Design[edit]

According to his son,[4] Eichler was inspired by a short period of time when the family lived in a Frank Lloyd Wright–designed home in Hillsborough.[5] Eichler was attracted to the style and decided to try to produce similar designs. Joseph Eichler used well-known architects to design both the site plans and the homes themselves. He hired the respected architect and Wright disciple of sorts[6] Robert Anshen of Anshen & Allen to design the initial Eichlers, and the first prototypes were built in 1949.[7] In later years, Eichler built homes that were designed by other architects including by the San Francisco firm Claude Oakland & Associates and the Los Angeles firms of Jones & Emmons, A. Quincy Jones, and Raphael Soriano.

Eichler homes are examples of Modernist architecture that has come to be known as "California Modern", and typically feature glass walls, post-and-beam construction, and open floorplans in a style indebted to Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe. Eichler home exteriors featured flat and/or low-sloping A-framed roofs, vertical 2-inch pattern wood siding, and spartan facades with clean geometric lines. One of Eichler's signature concepts was to "bring the outside in", achieved via skylights and floor-to-ceiling windows with glass transoms looking out on protected and private outdoor rooms, patios, atriums, gardens, and swimming pools. Also of note is that most Eichler homes feature few, if any, front-facing (i.e., street-facing) windows; instead house fronts have either small, ceiling-level windows or small, rectangular windows with frosted glass. Many other architectural designs have large windows on all front-facing rooms.

The interiors had numerous unorthodox and innovative features for the time period including: exposed post-and-beam construction; tongue and groove decking for the ceilings following the roofline; concrete slab floors with integral radiant heating; lauan (Philippine mahogany) paneling; sliding doors for rooms, closets, and cabinets; and typically a second bathroom located in the master bedroom. Later models introduced the distinctive Eichler entry atriums, an open-air, enclosed entrance foyer designed to further advance the concept of integrating outdoor and indoor spaces.

Eichler homes were airy and modern in comparison to most of the mass-produced, middle-class, postwar homes built in the 1950s. At first, potential home buyers, many of whom were war-weary ex-servicemen and women seeking convention rather than innovation, were resistant to the innovative homes.

Projects[edit]

The Northern California Eichler Homes are predominantly in San Francisco, Marin County, Sacramento, the East Bay towns of Walnut Creek, Concord, Oakland, Castro Valley, and the San Francisco Peninsula towns of San Mateo, Redwood City, Palo Alto, Sunnyvale, Mountain View and San Jose. The Southern California Eichler Homes developments are in Thousand Oaks, Granada Hills, Orange and Palm Springs.

Eichler Homes neighborhoods[edit]

Northern California[edit]

Marin County[edit]
San Mateo County[edit]
  • 19th Avenue Park – San Mateo, California[8]
  • The Highlands – San Mateo, California - with over 700 Eichlers, this is the largest contiguous development of Eichler homes.
  • Bay Vista, Treasure Isle, and Marina Point Neighborhoods – Foster City, California, three separate neighborhoods that are all in close-proximity to each other and feature Eichler homes intermixed with other types of architecture.[9][10] Bay Vista is the largest tract in Foster City.[9]
  • Mills Estates – Burlingame, California
  • Atherwood – Redwood City, California
Santa Clara County[edit]
  • Monta Loma Neighborhood – Mountain View, California[11] with 200 Eichler homes from 1954 in a tract called Fairview, this is also a location with other mid-century home builders, Mackay Homes and Mardell Homes.[12]
  • Stanford University – Stanford, California, about 100 homes on Stanford land north of Page Mill Road and east of Junipero Serra Blvd.
  • Midtown – South Palo Alto Palo Alto, California, with many Eichler Homes, a Swim and Tennis Club called "Eichler" and an Eichler Tract Community Association and Aquatic Facility called "Greenmeadow"
  • Bell Meadows – Mountain View, California, 48 Eichler homes built from 1972–1973 near Trophy Drive[12]
  • Sunnymount Gardens – Sunnyvale, California, the first Eichlers built in 1949–1950.[13]
  • Fairgrove Tract – Cupertino, California has 229 homes built in 1960–1961
  • Fairwood, Fairbrae, and Fairbrae addition – Sunnyvale, California have 400+ homes built between 1958–1961
  • Fairglen Tract in the Willow Glen neighborhood – San Jose, California
  • Morepark Neighborhood (currently called Rose Glen / Sherman Oaks) Willow Glen – San Jose, California
  • Clay Drive – Los Altos, California
  • Pomeroy West – Santa Clara, California, with 133 Eichler homes
Alameda County[edit]
  • Sequoyah Hills – Oakland, California, built in 1965-1966, there are fewer than 50 homes in Oakland Hills.
  • Greenridge – Castro Valley, California, built along a ridge in the hills of Castro Valley, there are around 200 homes build by Joseph Eichler in the early to mid 1960s. Designed by Claude Oakland and Jones & Emmons, these homes feature a variety of floor plans from flat-top roofs to steeply pitched A-frames. All the homes feature the signature Eichler atrium along with floor-to-ceiling walls of glass and exposed post and beams. Most Greenridge homes have view with some having views of the east bay city lights and the bay.[14]
Contra Costa County[edit]
Other Northern California counties[edit]

Southern California[edit]

  • Thousand Oaks, California – Eichler community in the Conejo Valley
  • Granada Hills, California – Eichler community in the San Fernando Valley; its "Foster Residence" is a designated Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument
  • Fairhaven – Orange, California, with 140 Eichler homes
  • Fairmeadow – Orange, California, with 123 Eichler homes
  • Fairhills – Villa Park, California, with 80 Eichler homes
  • Balboa Heights – Burbank, California, with 109 Eichler homes
  • Palm Springs, California in the southernmost Andreas Hills neighborhood – building started in 2015 based on Eichler's blueprints, built by KUD Development.[15][16]

Other projects[edit]

Joseph Eichler also built semi-custom designs for individual clients by commission, such as three in Chestnut Ridge, New York.[17] As a result of soaring land prices in the mid-1960s urban redevelopment projects became popular, and Eichler began building low- and high-rise projects in San Francisco's Western Addition and Hunters Point-Bayview districts, luxury high-rises and clustered housing on Russian Hill and Diamond Heights. He also developed the suburban and trendsetting co-op communities Pomeroy Green and Pomeroy West in Santa Clara. These large projects began to overextend the company, and by the mid-1960s, Eichler Homes was in financial distress. The company filed for bankruptcy in 1967.

Personal life[edit]

He married Lilian Moncharsh (1902–1982), the daughter of Polish Jewish emigres.[18] Together they had two sons, Edward "Ned" Philip (1930–2014) and Richard.[19][20]

References[edit]

  1. ^Jewish Daily Forward: "How 'Eichlers' Brought Design to Suburbia - Jewish Builder Transformed American Ideal of Modern Homes" By Renee Ghert-Zand March 02, 2012
  2. ^Adamson, Paul (2002). Eichler: Modernism rebuilds the American Dream (first ed.). Gibbs Smith. p. 22. ISBN 1-58685-184-5. 
  3. ^Gale, Roy (1958-06-28). "Jim Crow Real Estate Men Hit by Calif. Court"(PDF). The Militant Newspaper. Retrieved 2017-03-22. 
  4. ^O'DELL, LYNN (1993-10-23). "Eichler Influenced by Wright: After Living in a House Designed by the Architect, Eichler Set Out to Build His Own and Never Quit". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  5. ^"The Bazett House - Hillsborough". Eichler Network. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  6. ^O'DELL, LYNN (1993-10-23). "Eichler Influenced by Wright : After Living in a House Designed by the Architect, Eichler Set Out to Build His Own and Never Quit". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  7. ^"Joe Eichler Profile". Eichler Network. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  8. ^"Work in Progress: 19th Avenue - San Mateo". Eichler Network. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  9. ^ ab"Foster City Eichlers". Peninsula Eichlers. Retrieved 2018-01-05. 
  10. ^https://www.google.com/maps/d/viewer?mid=1ZEGF1pBuCiTwvvysi9EjCNMOANs&hl=en&ll=37.56083630590636%2C-122.258084&z=15
  11. ^"Steve Jobs called Mountain View home as a child". Mountain View Voice Newspaper. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  12. ^ ab"where to look in Mountain View". JohnFyten.com. 2013-12-14. Retrieved 2017-03-23. 
  13. ^Arbunich, Marty. "Eichler's Early Years: 1949-'50 The First Subdivisions". Eichler Network. Retrieved 2017-10-19. 
  14. ^Joseph Eichler | Progressive builder of Joseph Eichler Homes | Architect
  15. ^"The First New Eichler Home in 40 Years is Almost Finished". Curbed. 2015-01-20. Retrieved 2016-03-07. 
  16. ^"Reborn Eichler". Palm Springs Life. 2015-05-01. Retrieved 2016-03-07. 
  17. ^Cohen, Michelle (2017-03-13). "Modern-Spotting: The Lost Eichlers of Rockland County, NY". 6sqft. Retrieved 2017-08-05. 
  18. ^Adamson, Paul and Marty Arbunich Eichler: Modernism Rebuilds the American Dream edited by Marty Arbunich, Ernest Braun | 2002 | p. 44
  19. ^Sheyner, Gennady. "Planned home brings angst to Eichler block in Palo Alto". PaloAltoOnline.com. Retrieved 2016-01-27. 
  20. ^"Ned Eichler, son of innovative housing developer, dead at 83". Mercury News. Retrieved 2016-01-27. 

Sources[edit]

  • Adamson, Paul; Marty, Arbunich (2002). Eichler: Modernism Rebuilds the American Dream. Ernest Braun (photographer). Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith Publishers. ISBN 1-58685-184-5. 
  • Adamson, Paul (March 2001). "California modernism and the Eichler homes". The Journal of Architecture. 6 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1080/13602360010024804. 
  • Ditto, Jerry; Lanning, Stern (1995). Design for Living: Eichler Homes. Marvin Wax (photographer). San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-0846-7. 
  • Jacobs, Karrie (May 15, 2005). "Saving the Tract House". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved December 26, 2009. 
Foster Residence, Granada Hills

Das Programm Case Study Houses (deutsch Fallstudien-Häuser) war ein Versuch im Bereich der experimentellen Wohnhaus-Architektur, der den Entwurf sowie die Errichtung von einfachen kostengünstigen Modellhäusern vorsah. Diese Maßnahme war nicht zuletzt angesichts der Wohnungsnot der Nachkriegsjahre in den Vereinigten Staaten notwendig geworden, die durch die Rückkehr von Millionen Soldaten am Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges bedingt war. Gesponsert wurde das Programm, das mit Unterbrechungen von 1945 bis 1966 lief, durch die Zeitschrift Arts & Architecture. Deren Herausgeber John Entenza konnte als entschiedener Verfechter des Modernismus namhafte Architekten wie Richard Neutra, Raphael Soriano, Craig Ellwood, Charles und Ray Eames, Pierre Koenig und Eero Saarinen verpflichten. Hierbei wurde der Versuch unternommen, neue Formen des Wohnens zu entwickeln. Das Case-Study-Houses-Programm stellt somit eine außergewöhnliche und einzigartige innovative Episode in der Geschichte der amerikanischen Architektur dar und hatte einen starken Einfluss auf die Entwicklung der amerikanischen und internationalen Architektur.

Insgesamt wurden 36 Häuser entworfen, von denen nicht alle verwirklicht wurden. Die ersten sechs wurden bis 1948 fertiggestellt und zogen mehr als 350.000 Besucher an. Die meisten Case Study Houses wurden im Großraum Los Angeles errichtet, einige auch in der Region um San Francisco, sowie eines in Phoenix. Eine Reihe von ihnen wurde in Arts & Architecture vorgestellt, mit Fotografien von Julius Shulman.

Liste der Case Study Houses[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

NummerNameArchitekt(en)PublizierungBaujahrStatusStandortStadtArts & Architecture PDF link
1J. R. DavidsonFebruar 19481948Vorhanden10152 Toluca Lake AvenueNorth HollywoodCSH#1 (PDF; 3,8 MB)
2Sumner Spaulding und John RexAugust 19471947Vorhanden857 Chapea RoadPasadenaCSH#2 (PDF; 2,4 MB)
3William Wurster und Theodore BernardiMärz 19491949Vorhanden12187 Chalon RoadLos AngelesCSH#3 (PDF; 2,0 MB)
4Greenbelt HouseRalph RapsonSeptember 1945EntwurfCSH#4 (PDF; 1,3 MB)
5Loggia HouseWhitney R. SmithApril 1946EntwurfCSH#5 (PDF; 926 kB)
6OmegaRichard NeutraOktober 1945EntwurfCSH#6 (PDF; 2,2 MB)
7Thornton AbellJuli 19481948Vorhanden634 North Deerfield AvenueSan GabrielCSH#7 (PDF; 1,1 MB)
8Eames HouseCharles und Ray EamesDezember 19491949Vorhanden203 Chautauqua BoulevardPacific PalisadesCSH#8 (PDF; 3,7 MB)
9Entenza HouseCharles Eames und Eero SaarinenJuli 19501949Umgebaut205 Chautauqua BoulevardPacific PalisadesCSH#9 (PDF; 3,4 MB)
10Kemper Nomland und Kemper Nomland, Jr.Oktober 19471947Vorhanden711 San Rafael AvenuePasadenaCSH#10 (PDF; 1,9 MB)
11J. R. DavidsonJuli 19461946Abgerissen540 South Barrington AvenueWest Los AngelesCSH#11 (PDF; 3,1 MB)
12Whitney R. SmithFebruar 1946EntwurfCSH#12 (PDF; 2,7 MB)
13AlphaRichard NeutraMärz 1946EntwurfCSH#13 (PDF; 3,5 MB)
15J. R. DavidsonJanuar 19471947Vorhanden4755 Lasheart DriveLa Cañada FlintridgeCSH#15 (PDF; 1,2 MB)
16Rodney WalkerFebruar 19471947Abgerissen9945 Beverly Grove DriveBeverly HillsCSH#16 (PDF; 2,1 MB)
17ARodney WalkerJuli 19471947Vorhanden7861 Woodrow Wilson DriveLos AngelesCSH#17 (PDF; 909 kB)
17BCraig EllwoodMärz 19561956Vorhanden9554 Hidden Valley RoadBeverly HillsCSH#17 (PDF; 5,1 MB)
18AWest HouseRodney WalkerFebruar 19481948Vorhanden199 Chautauqua BoulevardPacific PalisadesCSH#18 (PDF; 1,7 MB)
18BCraig EllwoodFebruar 19581958Vorhanden1129 Miradero RoadBeverly HillsCSH#18 (PDF; 2,7 MB)
19Don KnorrSeptember 1947EntwurfCSH#19 (PDF; 516 kB)
20ARichard NeutraDezember 19481948Vorhanden219 Chautauqua BoulevardPacific PalisadesCSH#20 (PDF; 23,9 MB)
20BBass HouseC. Buff, C. Straub, D. HensmanNovember 19581958Vorhanden2275 Santa Rosa AvenueAltadenaCSH#20 (PDF; 30,8 MB)
21ARichard NeutraMai 1947EntwurfCSH#21 (PDF; 925 kB)
21BBailey HousePierre KoenigFebruar 19591958Vorhanden9048 Wonderland Park AvenueWest HollywoodCSH#21 (PDF; 2,3 MB)
1950Raphael SorianoDezember 19501950Umgebaut1080 Ravoli DrivePacific PalisadesCSH1950 (PDF; 2,0 MB)
1953Craig EllwoodJuni 19531953Vorhanden1811 Bel Air RoadBel AirCSH1953 (PDF; 3,0 MB)
22Stahl HousePierre KoenigJuni 19601960Vorhanden1635 Woods DriveWest HollywoodCSH#22 (PDF; 2,3 MB)
23TriadKillingsworth, Brady, Smith & Assoc.März 19611960VorhandenRue de AnnaLa JollaCSH#23 (PDF; 29,5 MB)
24A. Quincy Jones und Frederick E. EmmonsDezember 1961EntwurfCSH#24 (PDF; 12,0 MB)
25Frank HouseKillingsworth, Brady, Smith & Assoc.Dezember 19621962Vorhanden82 Rivo Alto CanalLong BeachCSH#25 (PDF; 44,6 MB)
26Harrison HouseBeverley "David" ThorneJanuar 19631963VorhandenSan Marino DriveSan RafaelCSH#26 (PDF; 5,4 MB)
27Campbell und WongJuni 1963EntwurfCSH#27 (PDF; 6,6 MB)
28C. Buff und D. HensmanSeptember 19651966Vorhanden91 Inverness RoadThousand OaksCSH#28 (PDF; 15,7 MB)
Apt 1Alfred N. Beadle und Alan A. DaileySeptember 19641964Vorhanden4402 28th StreetPhoenix (Arizona)CSApts#1 (PDF; 10,2 MB)
Apt 2Killingsworth, Brady, Smith & Assoc.Mai 1964EntwurfCSApts#2 (PDF; 12,7 MB)

Literatur[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

  • Smith, Elizabeth / Gössel, Peter: Case Study Houses. The Complete CSH Program 1945-1966 (deutsch, englisch, französisch). Köln: Taschen, 2002

Weblinks[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Normdaten (Sachbegriff): GND: 4558603-2(AKS)

Stahl House von Pierre Koenig (Case Study House Nr. 22)
Eames House von Charles und Ray Eames (Case Study House Nr. 8)

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