Question 1. Do you think that there should be equal opportunity in a just society? What would you mean by this phrase? Do you think that it is a realizable ideal? Describe John Stuart Mill’s concept of utilitarianism. Do you see any advantages or disadvantages of applying this to our society?
In a just society and in the society which is attempting to be just, there should be equal opportunity. In this context, equal opportunity means equal treatment for all people without specific prejudices or discrimination, unless the focus on certain distinctions between people is vitally important in this situation. For example, it is not fair to refuse hiring a loader because of his race, but it is reasonable to reject a loader who does not have one hand, because this fact will prevent him from fulfilling job responsibilities in a proper way.
Equal opportunity should be integrated into all social spheres. Most commonly, the question of equal opportunities emerges in the situations when employment or educational status, or certain social benefits are considered. Equal opportunity is a realizable ideal, and the idea of equal opportunity is gradually introduced into all spheres of the society. However, time is needed for this idea to become part of the social culture. The idea of equal opportunity will help to promote the happiness of all members of the society. This concept is aligned with the idea of utilitarianism outlined by John Stuart Mill.
John Stuart Mill developed an in-depth concept of utilitarianism. He stated that utilitarianism has a moral value, and that actions should be considered moral (right) to the extent to which these actions promote happiness (Archie & Archie, 2003). Happiness in this context is viewed as the absence of pain and the presence of pleasure (Archie & Archie, 2003). Moreover, Mill stated that there were different types of pleasures: basic pleasures and higher faculties. He believed that pleasures associated with higher faculties were more important (had more weight in utilitarian “calculus”) compared to base pleasures (Archie & Archie, 2003).
The presence of equal opportunity in the society will increase the pleasure for all its members because no people will be treated unfairly, and more people will occupy social roles and places matching their talents and aspirations. The disadvantage of this approach is the complexity of distinguishing between just and unjust discrimination (whether the discrimination is really needed because the particular qualities are vitally important, or due to stereotypes); one more possible disadvantage is adverse discrimination – discriminating against the dominating social groups by supporting the needs of minor social groups.
Archie, L. & Archie, J.G. (2003). Introduction to Ethical Studies: An Open Source Reader. Retrieved from http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/ethicsbook.pdf
The definition of Equal Opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to provide a certain social environment in which ensure people are not excluded from the activities of society, such as education, employment, or health care, on the basis of immutable traits. Equal opportunity practices include measures taken by organizations to ensure fairness in the employment process. The Equal Opportunity program formulates, directs, and sustains a comprehensive effort to maximize human potential and to ensure fair treatment for all persons based solely on merit, fitness, and capability in support of readiness. Equal Opportunity philosophy is based on fairness, justice, and equity. The U.S. Army will provide Equal Opportunity and fair treatment for military personnel and family members without regard to race, color, gender, religion, national origin, and provide an environment free of unlawful discrimination and offensive behavior.
The policy of the Army is that sexual harassment is unacceptable conduct and will not be tolerated. If there was not a policy in place I believe a lot of soldiers and their families would have a lot of problems with other soldiers doing what is wrong and immoral. Equal employment opportunity involves both workplace nondiscrimination and affirmative action. Equal opportunity has changed the way businesses and organizations recruit, hire, and even act in the working environment. These changes have been put in place due to the increasing numbers of women, people with different racial and ethnic backgrounds, persons of different ages, their able-bodied ness, and religion. In 1964 a change was brought about by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title seven of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was to enforce the constitutional right to vote, to confer jurisdiction upon the district courts of the United States to provide injunctive relief against discrimination in public accommodations.
The definition of Sexual Harassment is harassment