Reflection On Audio Lingual Method Essay

One of the assignments that was required for my GGGV2044 Methods in TESL course this semester was a 20% individual research paper on one or more of the methods of language teaching in an ESL (English as a Second Language) context such as Malaysia.

Dr. Hamidah (Dr. H from PKAPS :P) was my lecturer for this course. And she, being as flexible as she was, gave us some freedom on the topic that we wished to discuss in our research paper. She told us we could:

1) discuss one method in detail, describing the advantages and disadvantages of the use of the method,

2) compare one method up against another, discussing the pros and cons of both,

3) do an analysis of more than two methods, or

4) write a chronological timeline of the methods including the principles of language teaching at the particular time period.

All interesting topics, for sure. But I chose Topic #1 ๐Ÿ™‚

I chose the Audio-lingual Method (ALM) to discuss and write on, because I felt that the theories behind ALM were interesting and are heavily debated even to this day.

Searching for resources was the first thing I knew I needed to do. I had to first read up on the method and know it inside out before I could start any writing at all.

Normally when I search for resources, I go to our UKM library’s online e-journals for students. I find it convenient and it has helped me in completing all my essays. When I was in first year, I used to Google up books from the internet but was more often than not, frustrated because the books available online were incomplete, or we would have to pay by credit card in order to proceed to the next page.

After discovering PTSL (Perpustakaan Tun Seri Lanang) E-Journal, I felt like smacking myself in the forehead. Why did I not use this before?? All the articles and journals that could be found there were COMPLETE and FREE. That is exactly what it is for, isn’t it?

I managed to find a few articles in online journals that were interesting and gave me the information I needed. I had to look for them under SCOPUS of course, and EBSCOHOST (Educational online data bases) as well. It took me some time to narrow down the search to find what I wanted on ALM, but I did. ๐Ÿ™‚

After reading and “digesting” what I had read from the articles as well as from several books I had, there was a lot of information obtained on ALM. All I needed to do now was to decide what I wanted to include in my research paper and organize all my thoughts systematically. I would also have to list down a few quotes that brought new ideas to the general topic of ALM.

After thinking about it, I came up with this rough draft:

HEADINGS AND SUBHEADINGS

– Introduction:Brief description of the theory behind ALM

– History:How ALM came about; the theory of language teaching at that period

– Principles of ALM: Beliefs and assumptions (and counter-arguments?)

– Main features:Key activities

– Techniques: Specific activities and tasks carried out in ALM that support theory and principles

– Advantages

– Disadvantages

– Recommendations: Suggestions (personal) on employing the ALM in Malaysian context

– Conclusion:Closing summary on the whole topic

Based on these headings and subheadings, I drafted my research paper. I wrote down what points I wanted to include in that particular category, the examples I wanted to give, the page of reference from either the journals or the books. Quotes that I wanted to include together with the author’s name and year of book publication.

Complying strictly to my draft, I started writing my research paper. And surprisingly, such a daunting task was completed within the day !

It took my longer to compile the information and organize my thoughts and ideas. That took me a few days: searching for articles on the internet and online journals, looking for suitable books to source from, organizing my ideas into categories and headings etc.

After that was done, I started writing based on the draft I had already prepared. And it was smooth-flowing from there. I had everything I needed right in front of me (including pages of the book or article to refer to) and so I managed to complete writing in 3-4 solid hours.

It was still rough around the edges, but everything I wanted to say was already typed out onto “paper”.

Next, came the editing. I usually find it harder to edit my own work. I have a tendency to ramble on when I write (as is pretty obvious by how long my blog posts are =.=) and so find it extremely hard to cut down on my “precious words” after that. Still, I tried my best. I cut out sentences I thought were not necessary, tweaked a few here and there. Replaced some words with more effective ones.

When I was almost satisfied with it, I worked on the margins and font size, checking if everything was according to the UKM format. Then I reread my work a couple of times to get the “feel” of the writing before I wrote my conclusion. I added in Appendix A (some other examples I had but did not elaborate on in the research paper itself) and typed out the references I had following UKM format. Finally I reread the entire assignment from beginning to end, checking for spelling mistakes (Well, I guess Microsoft Word does that for you now, but you still have to check, don’t you?), typing errors, margins, format, quotations.

And I was satisfied. ๐Ÿ™‚

Handed it in to Dr. H 3 days before the deadline (Yes, I am very proud of that fact ! :P).

I actually enjoyed this assignment. When I reread my work, I always feel an immense feeling of satisfaction from having put my best into completing it. With regards to the subject matter, I better understood what ALM was all about (the Larsen-Freeman book is a really simple-read, straightforward and direct ! Helped me tremendously).

The process itself was a self-satisfying one. I learnt to source for my materials and resources using our UKM library’s online journals. I learnt to organize my thoughts and ideas, one step at a time. When you do that, any task can be completed without much fuss and minimal headache ! I also learnt that it is always better to read up and understand the entire topic on your own first, and write based on what you understand the topic to be. Rather than copy and paste everything from your sources (which is plagiarism ! And unethical ! >.<)

This assignment has been a learning experience once again and helped me solidify skills that I had already learnt from completing past assignments (like using PTSL E-Journals) as well as familiarize myself with new skills (organizing my thoughts out on paper first) that I can continue to use for the next assignment, and all the assignments after that. ๐Ÿ™‚

ALM_Discussion

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Identifying differences can sometimes begin with clarifying similarities. A similarity between the Situational Language Teaching, which began in the 1930s, and the audio-lingual method, which began in the 1950s, is that they both use Structuralism as the foundation for language learning practices.

In contrast, the direct teaching method, which was developed in 1900, does not use Structuralism as the foundation for language learning practices. It was instead a response to the Grammar-Translation...

Identifying differences can sometimes begin with clarifying similarities. A similarity between the Situational Language Teaching, which began in the 1930s, and the audio-lingual method, which began in the 1950s, is that they both use Structuralism as the foundation for language learning practices.

In contrast, the direct teaching method, which was developed in 1900, does not use Structuralism as the foundation for language learning practices. It was instead a response to the Grammar-Translation (translation from one language to the other) method of language teaching.

Since the situational and the audio-lingual methods are linked to Structuralism, they both rely on behavioralism and emphasize habit-formation, correctness, and contextual and cultural clues. One way these two differ is in their objectives.

The situational method has as an important objective proficiency in the four basic language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing. In contrast, the audio-lingual method omits those as objectives but keeps the two objectives common to both methods: accurate pronunciation and grammar and quick, accurate speech responses.

The third objective of the audio-lingual method, which differs from the other objective of the situational method, is knowledgeable vocabulary to use with correct grammar patterns. In contrast, the final objective of the situational method is automatic control (done without thinking) of basic language structures and sentence patterns.

The biggest pedagogical difference between the situational and audio-lingual methods is that the first (situational) emphasizes language learning in situations in which language elements are or could be actually used, while the second (audio-lingual) emphasizes heard, then repeated and drilled model dialogues.

Situational method teaches for language production if real situations. Audio-lingual method teaches for acquired dialogs models that fit various topics. Direct language teaching requires immersion in the new language targeted, without depending on the mother-language, to learn the target language.

The theoretical foundation of the direct method is that second languages must be learned in the same way that the first language was learned. Critics point out that conditions at the time of second language learning are very unlike conditions at the time of first language learning.

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