Quantitative Methods Of Communication Research Papers

Description

Quantitative Research Methods for Communication: A Hands-On Approach, Third Edition, is a comprehensive and engaging guide to quantitative research. Drawing on their extensive research and teaching experience, the authors encourage students to take an active, hands-on role in the learning process. After giving students the tools they need to locate, conduct, collect, and present their research, the text provides them with the opportunity to immediately apply these skills in research scenarios.

New to this Edition

  • A new chapter on big data and how researchers use it
  • Coverage of conflicts of interest in Chapter 3: Research Ethics
  • A thorough discussion of the major epistemological traditions within the field of communication
  • A new section on presenting research to external audiences highlighting the differences between research for academic audiences and research for the general public
  • Presentation of valuable information in a side-bar feature without disrupting the narrative
  • A new section on ordinary vs. scientific ways of knowing
  • Updated references and bolded key terms throughout
  • Examination of the modern use of infographics to display complicated statistical information
  • A new section on ex-post-facto experiments to examine how many experiments may not follow the traditional guidelines

Table of Contents

    Chapter 1 An Introduction to Communication Research
    The History of the Social Sciences
    The Nature of Communication
    Understanding the Book's Format
    Research outside the Walls of Academia

    Chapter 2 Empirical Research
    Ways of Knowing
    Epistemology
    Ordinary vs. Scientific Ways of Knowing

    The Scientific Approach to Communication Research
    Scientific Method
    Theories
    Predictions/Hypotheses
    Observations
    Empirical Generalizations

    Conclusion
    Research outside the Walls of Academia

    Chapter 3 Research Ethics
    Defining Ethics
    Good means-Good End: Ethical Behavior
    Bad Means-Bad End: Unethical Behavior
    Bad Means-Good End: Machiavellian Ethic
    Good Means-Bad End: Subjective Ethic

    The Belmont Report's Effect on Research Ethics
    Informed Consent
    Principle of Beneficence
    Justice

    Institutional Review Boards
    Institutional Review Board Basics
    Informed Consent
    Institutional Review Board Processes
    Basic IRB Functions
    Advanced IRB Functions

    Specific Ethical Issues for Research
    Data Accuracy
    Data Sharing
    Duplicate Data Publication
    Post Hoc Hypothesis Revision
    Participant Identity Disclosures
    Authorship Credit
    Conflicts of Interest
    Plagiarism
    Source Not Cited Types of Plagiarism
    Source Cited Types of Plagiarism

    Ethical Research outside Academia
    Conclusion

    Chapter 4 Searching for Previous Research and APA Style
    Step One: Identifying the Topic

    Step Two: Clarifying the Research Question and Generating Key Terms
    Stating the Topic in the Form of a Research Question
    Identifying Key Terms and Synonymous Terms

    Step Three: Locating Sources of Information
    Types of Information Sources
    Locating Information Sources
    Handbooks and Subject Encyclopedias
    Electronic Databases
    The World Wide Web
    Working with Librarians
    Evaluating Web Sources

    Step Four: Organizing and Evaluating Information

    Step Five: Citing Sources of Information Using the APA Format

    What Information Needs to be Referenced?
    Citing Sources of Information
    Parenthetical Citations
    Quotations and Paraphrases

    APA Paper Formatting
    Creating a Title Page
    Creating an Abstract
    Creating the First Page
    Creating the Reference Page
    Conclusion

    Chapter 5 Research Structure and Literature Reviews
    The Abstract

    The Introduction
    Attention-Getter
    Using Statistics or Claims
    Posing a Rhetorical Question
    Using an Acknowledged Fact
    Using a Story or Illustration
    Quoting or Acknowledging a Source
    Link to Topic
    Significance of Topic
    Espousal of Credibility
    Thesis and Preview

    Literature Review
    Five Reasons FOR Literature Reviews
    Previous Research
    Chronological
    Cause and Effect
    Compare and Contrast
    Problem-Cause-Solution
    Psychological
    Categorical/Topical
    General to Specific
    Specific to General
    Known to Unknown

    StudyRationale

    Method Section

    Participants
    Apparatus
    Procedure
    Instrumentation

    Results Section

    Discussion Section

    The Conclusion

    Research Outside the Walls of Academia

    Reading & Critiquing Academic Literature

    Preparing a First Draft
    Step 1: Identify Your General Topic
    Step 2: Determine the Type of Study you are Conducting
    Step 3: Determine what Variables You will Examine
    Step 4: Search for Primary Sources
    Step 5: Obtain Full Text References
    Step 6: Look for Other References in Obtained Materials
    Step 7: Narrow Your List of References
    Step 8: Organize References by Major and Subtopics
    Step 9: Look for Gaps in Your References
    Step 10: Find References to Fill Gaps
    Step 11: Create a Literature Review Outline
    Step 12: Write
    Conclusion

    Chapter 6 Variables
    How Are Research Projects Developed?
    Variables: Units of Analysis

    Types of Units

    Aspects of Variables

    Variable attributes
    Variable values
    Understanding relationships and Differences
    Relationships
    Differences

    Types of Variables

    Variable Levels

    Nominal Variables
    Ordinal Variables
    Interval Variables
    Likert
    Semantic Differential
    Staple's
    Scalogram
    Ratio Variables

    Communication Variables
    Nominal Variables
    Ordinal Variables
    Interval Variables
    Common Interval Variable Measures
    Communication Apprehension
    Ethnocentrism
    Humor Assessment
    Nonverbal Immediacy
    Sociocommunicative Orientation
    Willingness to Communicate
    Beliefs and Attitudes
    Ratio Variables

    Writing Up Scales Using APA Style
    Participants
    Procedures
    Instrumentation
    Conclusion

    Chapter 7 Measurement
    Numbers and Things

    Review of Measurement Levels
    Nominal
    Ordinal
    Interval
    Ratio

    A History of Measurement
    Likert scales
    Semantic differential

    Measuring Communication
    Personality Traits/States
    Beliefs and Attitudes
    Knowledge

    Developing Your Operationalization
    Conceptualization
    Operationalization

    Constructing Questions

    One Measure, Multiple Factors

    Finding Mental Measures

    Measurement and Statistical Analysis
    Research
    Outside the Walls of Academia
    Conclusion

    Chapter 8 Reliability and Validity
    Reliability
    Scalar Reliability
    Test-Retest Reliability
    Alternate Forms Reliability
    Split-Half Reliability
    Cronbach's Alpha Reliability
    Computer Printouts of Cronbach's Alpha
    SPSS and Cronbach's Alpha
    Excel and Cronbach's Alpha
    APA Discussion
    Alpha Reliabilities from this Book
    Reliabilities in the Real World

    Improving Reliability of Measurement

    Validity

    Face or Content Validity
    Criterion Validity
    Predictive
    Concurrent
    Retrospective
    Construct or Factorial Validity

    Validity Threats

    Problems with Measurement

    Research Outside the Walls of Academia

    Conclusion

    Chapter 9 SurveyResearch
    When to Use a Survey
    Do You Know What You Want to Ask?
    Do You Really Need to Collect New Data?
    Do Your Participants Know Anything or Will They Even Tell You?

    Is Your Goal Generalizability?

    How to Conduct Survey Research
    STEP 1: Picking Your Questions
    Nominal Level Questions
    Ordinal Level Questions
    Interval Level Questions
    Ratio Level Questions
    Open-Ended Questions
    STEP 2: Creating Clear Instructions
    STEP 3: Study Design
    STEP 4: Data Processing and Analysis
    STEP 5: Pilot Testing
    Use Actual Survey Population Members
    Anticipate Survey Context
    Test Parts of the Survey
    Determining a Pilot Sample Size
    Ask Questions After Someone Completes the Survey

    Disseminating YourSurveys
    Interviewing
    Face-to-Face Interviewing
    Telephone Interviewing
    Self-Administration
    Mass Administration
    Mailed Administration
    Internet Administration
    Advantages and Disadvantages of Self-Administered Surveying

    Problem Areas Associated with Survey Research
    Response Rate
    Unit Nonresponse
    Item Nonresponse
    Effects of Nonresponse
    Improving Response Rates

    Translating Surveys into Other Languages
    Semantic Equivalence
    Conceptual Equivalence
    Normative Equivalence
    Simple Direct Translation
    Modified Direct Translation
    Translation/Back-Translation
    Parallel Blind Technique
    Random Probe

    Using the Research Project Worksheet
    Question
    Design
    Setting
    Participants
    Specific Characteristics
    Recruitment
    Consent
    Variables
    Independent Variables
    Dependent Variables
    Hypotheses/Research Questions
    Statistical Testing
    Tentative Study Title
    Principal Researcher(s)

    Measurement outside of Academia
    Conclusion

    Chapter 10 Content Analysis
    Conducting a Content Analysis
    Theory and Rationale
    conceptualization
    Operationalization
    Coding schemes
    Sampling
    Training and Pilot Reliability
    Introduction to Coding Book
    Sample Coding
    Coding of Initial Data
    Initial Reliability
    Retraining
    Final Coding
    Final Reliability
    Tabulation and Reporting
    Conclusion

    Chapter 11 Experimental Design
    What Are Experiments and Why Do We Do Them?
    Rationale for Experimental Research
    Aspects of Experimental Design
    Random Assignment
    Manipulation of the Independent Variable
    Measurement of the Dependent Variable
    Controlling an Experiment
    Conducting an Experiment
    Introducing the Experiment and Obtaining Consent
    Random Assignment
    Manipulate the Independent Variable
    Measure the Dependent Variable
    Debriefing

    Threats to Experimental Validity
    Historical flaw
    Maturation
    Testing flaw
    Regression to the Mean
    Selection Threat
    Attrition

    Common Experimental Designs
    Preexperimental Designs
    One-Shot Case Study
    One-Group Pretest Posttest Design
    Static Group Comparisons
    Quasi-Experimental Designs
    Pretest-Posttest Design
    Time Series
    Multiple Time Series
    Switching Replications Design
    True Experimental Designs
    Pretest-Posttest Design
    Two-Group Posttest-Only Design
    Randomized Switching Replications Design
    Solomon Four-Group Design

    Final Thoughts on Experiments
    Conclusion

    Chapter 12 Big Data
    What is the Data in Big Data?
    Human Generated Data
    Machine Generated Data

    Big Data?
    Big Data Explained
    Laney's 3Vs
    Volume
    Velocity
    Variety
    Four More V's
    Veracity
    Variability
    Visualization
    Value

    Big Data and the Cloud
    Understanding the Cloud
    The Cloud and Data
    Big Data in the Cloud

    Big Data Analysis
    Data Mining
    Monitoring & Anomalies

    Communication and Big Data

    Big Data
    Ethics
    Privacy
    Identity
    Ownership
    Reputation

    Chapter 13 Sampling Methods
    Why Use a Sample?
    Population
    Sample
    The Sampling Process
    Selecting a Sample Design

    PROBABILITY SAMPLING
    Simple Random Samples
    Stratified Random Samples
    Cluster Samples
    Systematic Samples

    Sampling Error

    Nonprobability Samples

    Convenience Samples
    Volunteer Samples
    Purposive Samples
    Quota Samples
    Network Sample

    Determining Sample Size

    Common Sense Sample Recruiting

    Ethical Recruitment

    Conclusion

    Chapter 14 Hypothesis Testing
    Hypotheses
    One-Tailed Hypotheses
    Two-Tailed Hypotheses
    Research Questions
    Directional Research Questions
    Nondirectional Research Questions
    Alternative & Null Hypotheses

    Hypothesis Testing Case Study
    Hypothesis Testing in the Case Study

    From Random Samples to a Whole Population

    Testing for Significance

    Step 1: Set the Probability Level
    Step 2: Conduct a Statistical Test
    Step 3: Comparing Calculated and Critical Values

    Testing for Power

    Effect Sizes

    Understanding Error

    The Confidence Interval
    Power
    Type I Error
    Type II Error

    Conclusion

    Chapter 15 Descriptive Statistics
    The Benefits of Statistics

    Descriptive Versus Inferential Statistics

    Measures of Central Tendency
    Mean
    Median
    Mode
    Frequency Distributions
    SPSS and Frequency Distributions
    Excel and Frequency Distributions
    Frequency Distributions and Charts
    Skewness & Kurtosis

    Measures of Variability
    Range
    Sum of Squares
    Variance
    Standard deviation

    Data Set Variability
    Conclusion

    Chapter 16 Chi-Square Test of Independence
    Case Study Introduction

    Chi-Square Background Information

    Step-by-Step Approach to the Chi-Square Test of Independence

    Computer Printouts of the Chi-Square Test of Independence
    SPSS and Chi-Squares
    Excel and Chi-Squares
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion of Findings
    Post-Hoc APA Write-Up

    Biological Sex and Book Edition

    Discussion of Brummans and Miller's Article

    Article Purpose
    Methodology
    Results

    Chi-Squares outsideAcademia
    Conclusion

    Chapter 17 Independent Samples t-Tests
    Case Study Introduction

    Independent Samples t-Test Background Information

    Step-by-Step Approach to the Independent t-Test

    Computer Printouts of the Independent t-Test
    SPSS and t-Tests
    Excel and t-Tests
    APA Write-Up (SPSS)
    APA Write-Up (Excel)
    Discussion of Findings

    Biological Sex and Communication Apprehension
    APA Write-Up (SPSS)
    Discussion

    Calculating Effect Sizes

    Discussion of the Weber, Fornash, Corrigan, and Neupauer Article

    Article Purpose
    Methodology
    Results

    Paired t-Tests

    t-Tests outside Academia

    Conclusion

    Chapter 18 One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
    Case Study Introduction

    One-Way ANOVA Background Information

    Step-by-Step Approach to the One-Way ANOVA

    Computer Printouts of the One-Way ANOVA
    SPSS and One-Way Anovas
    Multiple Comparison Tests
    Excel and One-Way Anovas
    APA Write-Up (Without Chart)
    APA Write-Up (With Chart)
    Discussion of Findings

    Political Affiliation and Humor Assessment
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion

    Discussion of the Boiarsky, Long, and Thayer Article
    Article Purpose
    Methodology
    Results

    One-way ANOVAs outside Academia

    Conclusion

    Chapter 19 Correlation
    Correlation Background Information
    Types of Relationships
    Correlation Not Causation
    Correlation Assumptions

    Case StudyIntroduction

    Step-by-Step Approach to the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation

    Computer Printouts of the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation

    SPSS and Pearson Product-Moment Correlations
    Excel and Pearson Product-Moment Correlations
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion

    Relationships Between Communication Apprehension, Willingness to Communicate, and Beliefs About Public Speaking
    APA Write-Up
    A Note about R

    Reading Large Correlation Tables

    Discussion of the Chesebro Article

    Article Purpose
    Methodology
    Results

    Discussion of the Punyanunt Article
    Article Purpose
    Methodology
    Results

    Correlations outside Academia

    Conclusion

    Chapter 20 Regression
    Case Study Introduction

    Regression Background Information

    Step-by-Step Approach to a Linear Regression

    Computer Printouts of the Linear Regression
    SPSS and Simple Linear Regressions
    Excel and the Simple Linear Regression
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion

    Relationships Between Communication Apprehension and Beliefs About Public Speaking
    APA Write-Up

    Understanding Multiple Linear Regressions
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion

    Discussion of the Wrench and Booth-Butterfield Article
    Article Purpose
    Methodology
    Results

    Discussion of the Rocca and Vogl-Bauer Article
    Article Purpose
    Methodology
    Results

    Regressions outside Academia

    Conclusion

    Chapter 21 Advanced StatisticalProcedures
    Difference Tests
    Factorial Anova
    Example
    Explanation
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion
    Analysis of Covariance
    Example
    Explanation
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion
    Multivariate Analysis of Variance
    Example
    Explanation
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion
    Repeated Measures Anova
    Example
    Explanation
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion

    Relationship Tests
    Path Analysis
    Example
    Explanation
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion
    Structural Equation Modeling
    Example
    Explanation
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion
    Factor Analysis
    Example
    Explanation
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion
    Canonical Correlations
    Example
    Explanation
    APA Write-Up
    Discussion

    Conclusion

    Chapter 22Presenting Research
    Writing a Discussion Section
    Providing a Summary of Major Findings
    Providing an Interpretation of Findings
    Discussing the Relationship Between Findings and Previous Studies
    Acknowledging Limitations
    Discussing Implications and future directions

    Writing the Abstract

    Presenting at Conferences

    Divisions and Interest Groups

    Submitting Research for Conference Review
    Types of Conference Presentations
    Paper Presentations
    Poster Presentations
    Scholar-to-Scholar Posters
    Panel Discussions

    Publication
    Journal Review Process
    Submission Process
    Review Process

    Research outside the Walls of Academia
    Writing for Business
    Research and the General Public
    Writing Statistical Stories
    Infographics
    Conclusion

    Appendix A Qualitative Research

    Appendix B Textbook Questionnaire

    Appendix C Open-Source Statistical Software Alternatives

Features

  • An introduction to the fundamentals of communication research, from library skills to basic mathematical concepts
  • An examination of the three most common techniques used in communication research: survey, content analysis and experiment
  • A guide to presenting research findings, from delivering research papers at conferences to submitting original research for publication
  • A step-by-step introduction to statistical tools and guided research assignments based on actual data-driven research questions

About the Author(s)

Jason S. Wrench is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication and Media at the State University of New York at New Paltz.

Candice Thomas-Maddox is Regional Coordinator and Associate Professor of Communication Studies at Ohio University Lancaster.

Virginia Peck Richmond is Professor and Chair of the Communication Studies Department at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Professor of Communication Studies (Emerita) at West Virginia University.

James C. McCroskey was Scholar in Residence in the College of Arts and Humanities at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Professor of Communication Studies (Emeritus) at West Virginia University.

Previous Publication Date(s)

November 2012
January 2008

Reviews

"If you're teaching a quantitative methods course, this is the best of all alternatives. Very thorough approach." --Douglas A. Ferguson, College of Charleston

"A thorough review of the major methodological choices facing communication researchers full of examples drawn directly from the field." --Bree McEwan, Western Illinois University

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